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After finishing a few turbo upgrades on the 1.6 HDI engine I started to wonder if there was a better solution. Although a big turbo does offer great top end power, the spool can be too late to get good useable torque.
My quest for a better turbo upgrade began and after lots of research I decided to use the Mitsubishi TF035 turbo from the 2.0 177 BHP BMW engine. This turbo was obviously capable of 180 BHP quite easily, and when pushed on the BMW 2.0 engine offers over 200 BHP.
A major plus for this turbo was that it uses an electronic actuator to control the VNT rather than the old style of an open loop vacuum system. These can be troublesome after turbo rebuilds if the VNT has not been calibrated properly, also there is substantial delay between a corrective signal from the ECU and the VNT arm changing the pitch of the VNT geometry.
The TF035 turbo would offer precise control of the VNT with a much better response time. Another benefit would be that thanks to a fully electronic mechanism, a transplant of the same model of turbo would give the same results on another vehicle, hence I would be able to offer this remap to others without needing to carry out a week of development work to get the turbo pre-control settings perfected.
The aim of this project wasn’t for all out peak horse power, because with that a large turbo is required and this will inevitably have a late spool. A late spool takes away all that low-down torque which makes a diesel car nice to drive. When looking at dyno plots, the useable power is the area beneath the power curve. A power curve with early torque will give a much wider useable power band than one that only peaks at the higher revs.
Parts required:
I’ve been very helpful here and tried to make a complete count of the main parts required. Yes, there will be a few pieces that I missed, and the parts required will probably be slightly different from car to car.


Injectors + MAP sensor
So, let’s get the easy parts out the way first, the injectors need to be upgraded to 0445110297, these are the highest flowing injectors available from a 1.6 110 16V engine. Generally, these come from the later models from around 2008.
The MAP sensor on the standard setup reads only to 2.5 bar (absolute), a replacement 3.1 bar sensor can be used. The part number for this is 9649396580.

The plug is almost the same, but you’ll need to scrape the side off to remove the slot which prevents it going to the sensor. For both the MAP sensor and the injectors it’s important that you don’t use the vehicle without having them calibrated in to the ECU through a remap.

Manifold adaptor
The first step to getting the turbo mounted was to design a set of flanges so that a manifold adaptor could be mocked up to hold the turbo in place. Here I drew up the flanges and sent them to be laser cut, much faster and cheaper than CNC machining and they were ready within 24 hours.
 

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continued 1....

I found that the 110 manifold looked a little bigger than the 90 manifold so I decided to swap this over. The outlet port wasn’t really that round so I used the new flange as a template and then a Dremel to machine it out a bit. I did the same on the exhaust ports to make them as big as possible and increase flow.

The next step was to find a way to fit the turbo under the bonnet. At first there was no chance of it fitting as it wouldn’t fit between the engine and the radiator fan. Here is a comparison of the TF035 against a TD02 (same size as the TD025).

The radiator fan had to go, and the radiator needed to be moved back. This is a photo of the radiator housing for a Peugeot 207, most models use a similar setup and there is a large gap between the radiator and the air con radiator. Here I used a cutting disc to take off as much as I could.

Two holes can be drilled in the base and then the radiator slotted back in, this holds it perfectly tight and gives much more room. The top can be held in using a couple of bolts through the plastic. Ignore the dents on the radiator, this was from the initial attempts to fit the turbo in, clearly it wasn’t going to happen.
 

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continued 2...

After a mock-up of the turbo the next issue became apparent. It was going to be very challenging to fit between the oil cooler, alternator and the air conditioning pump. Losing the AC was not an option. The air conditioning pipes were right where the compressor outlet needed to be. Luckily the AC pipes are very malleable, and if you’re very careful you can bend them out the way without cracking or breaking the seals anywhere. If you do this use full facial protection just in case you break it and the gasses/oil come out at you. Here a large adjustable spanner around the pipe worked great.

After making up a jig I could make a manifold adaptor and get the turbo in place. Here’s one I manufactured myself using a MiG welder and very thick butt weld stainless fittings. Due to distortion after welding I needed to take this to a friend’s machine shop to get the flanges perfectly flat so that they would make a nice seal. Use a new Peugeot gasket on one side and the BMW gasket on the other side to create a good seal.

Oil feed and Oil drain
With the turbo in place the next challenge was the oil feed and the oil drain. The oil feed was relatively easy after sourcing the correct parts. Here I used AN3 braided PTFE hose with an M12 45-degree banjo at the turbo side, and a M12 90-degree banjo going to the outlet from the oil pump.
The fittings come with an olive and a nut, after contacting the supplier they confirmed that the stainless braid must overlap the olive. Although it felt odd as the nut would not go all the way along the thread, I can confirm that this has worked well with no leaks. I would advise getting a hose made with crimped fittings and then it can’t fail.
The original banjo bolts were re-used, but due to the thinner M12 banjo different copper washers were required. It’s important that the thread can tighten all the way without hitting the shank. It’s also important that the eye on the bolt is in the middle of the banjo for best flow. Two thick original style washers must be used on one side, and then one original washer and one thin copper washer on the back side which comes with the new banjos. As the washers are being stacked don’t try to re-use your old ones as they won’t mate together properly and you’ll end up with an oil leak.

The oil drain of the new turbo is now too low to go in to the original drain hole. This left two options, drill the sump, or use an oil scavenge pump. Initially the scavenge pump seemed like a great idea, however once eventually finding place to mount it I removed it. The scavenge pump is just too unreliable for me and I wouldn’t be comfortable with this complexity, especially when it has a thermal cut out after around an hour of use.

After realising that a new sump pan would cost only £30 if my next plan didn’t work I took the sump straight off. I saved the oil I drained out and poured it in to the sump. The oil level with 4.5 litres came right to the top of the sump. As the turbo drain can’t have any restrictions this at first worried me, but I quickly realised that with the engine running most of the oil would be pumped around the engine.
 

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continued 3...

Next, I welded a 16mm tube on to the sump (sump is made of galvanised mild steel) and then drilled a hole through the centre. The tube needs to be as high as possible whilst still letting you get access to weld around it. Obviously put it between two bolt holes and not in line with the sump pan bolts. I put some black Hammerite over the top to prevent rust around the weld.
This gravity drain solution was much better and 100% reliable compared to a complex electrical pump. As predicted the oil level when running is not high enough to block the tube so this works perfectly.

The drain from the original turbo conveniently fits on to this turbo. Screw this on with a new gasket, and then run the 16mm silicone tube down. It’s best to use silicone hose that’s designed for oil for the turbo outlet as this will be quite hot initially.

Join the silicone with a piece of 16mm tubing and then run it to a 16mm 90 bend. I chose to make this slightly short to keep the bend uphill rather than with a dip at the bottom which would fill with oil.
 

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continued 4...

Exhaust system
Now the turbo is attached to the engine you can start working on the exhaust system. An 80mm flared 63mm tube fits perfectly on to the BMW turbo. I welded this to a 180 mandrel bend and then another 90 bend to go around the side of the sump. With the correct BMW gasket and clamp this fits reliably on to the turbine outlet without any exhaust leaks.
Here’s the down pipe and my complete exhaust system.

So, I’m not a welding specialist and certainly not a fabricator, but once I started working on this and bought a new welder I decided to do it all myself. In hind sight, £300 for materials and the labour involved by an exhaust shop isn’t such a bad deal, just pay somebody to do it with one complete pipe and no welds.
For the exhaust, I used 63mm stainless tubing all the way along, with a stainless flexi at the front. The brackets I used were an exhaust repair kit from eBay. This gave me the hangars and the rubber mounts which was very helpful.
The backbox is a simple 63mm straight through silencer. I used a 2.5” V band clamp after the down pipe, also another before the silencer so that the exhaust could be dismantled without taking the car apart beneath.
Here’s the down pipe after wrapping with titanium heat wrap. A tip here is not to use the cheap metal cable ties, but buy a couple of drive shaft clamps. These hold the heat wrap on well and don’t come loose. Another tip is not to rub this heat wrap all over your skin, it’s VERY itchy stuff.

With the exhaust system completed I chose to mount a support bracket under the turbo. This used a thick piece of steel onto the bolt on the bottom of the turbo. This can then mount to the bolts where the DPF canister would normally be held. As I had made a bracket for the oil pump which was no longer being used, I mounted my bracket on to this. A bracket it important as over time, the heat and vibration and the mass of the turbo will result in a cracked manifold or a crack on the manifold adaptor.
Intercooler and turbo pipe work
The car already had an uprated intercooler, but I had a much bigger one taking up space in my workshop. In my opinion, a big intercooler makes hardly any difference to turbo lag, but it does drop-down intake temperatures. With this 700x300 intercooler the intake temperatures didn’t go past 37 degrees with 2.9 bar boost sat on a dyno with minimal air flow. This really shows how well it works. I’ve seen the stock cooler have intake temps of over 100 degrees on the dyno before.
There are companies selling intercoolers for upwards of £300, this really isn’t required because there are no great changes in technology which can improve an intercooler. It’s best to focus on a big intercooler rather than an expensive smaller intercooler as this will always give lower intake temperatures. A twin pass intercooler offers greater efficiency and is much easier to fit as the inlet and outlet will be in the correct place.


Surprisingly this monster intercooler fits beneath the bumper on the 207 without any cutting required. Mounting brackets can be welded directly on to the steel bumper support beam. Here I sprayed with some primer after welding but painted black afterwards so it would not show through the bumper.
 

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Discussion Starter #6
Continued 5...

The lower outlet requires a 76 to 51mm 90 bend. A 45-degree stainless 51mm tube can now be used to weld a mounting boss for the MAP sensor and the temperature sensor. The air doser valves can be removed as they are very small and restrictive.
The top inlet required a 76 to 57mm 90 bend followed by a 135-degree 57mm alloy join with flared ends. A silicone 57mm 90 bend must now be cut to fit over the turbo outlet.
http://www.hdi-tuning.co.uk/downloads/TF035/turbo-out2.JPG/IMG]
Although the end of the turbo outlet is 51mm, there is no way to secure a pipe on to this without finding the original BMW pipe with a tight radius and a locking clip. Flexible corrugated hose was tested, and this did not last long as the jubilee clamps wore through the hose, although the hose did not pop off.
This next step is the only part of the build that I couldn’t find a better solution to, however it works very well. Cut a 90 57mm silicon near to the bend. Test to make sure it fits between the turbo and the AC pipes.
Smear some sump gasket sealant around the inside of the hose, and then push it all the way over the turbo outlet.
[IMG]http://www.hdi-tuning.co.uk/downloads/TF035/turbo-out1.JPG
Use a jubilee clamp tightened over the opposite side of the flange on the turbo so that the pipe can never pop off. Let the silicone dry before testing the vehicle, you now have a very permanent seal on this hose that will not affect reliability.
Although this may at first seem like a ‘bodge’ I’ve glued boost hoses before and found it works very very well. In fact, if you take the hose clamp off you’ll need to cut the silicone hose off. It will hold very well and there is no risk of a small boost leak as the silicone fills the gaps perfectly.
Here’s how it fits next to the AC pump, tight, but no interference with the pipes. I glued both ends of this pipe as it would be very difficult to fix if it were to pop off at any point. I recommend gluing all your boost pipes with silicone gasket sealant once your build is finalised, it just adds that extra reliability as over time the clamps stretch and pipes will pop off.
If you can source the BMW hose with a sharp 90 bend and a clip to go on to this turbo then this would obviously be a better solution.

The turbo inlet fits a 76mm 90 hose which can be reduced to a 57mm hose. Run the pipe along the front of the engine bay over to a free flow air filter. There is no need to run a MAF on this build as we can calculate air mass through the ECU using the boost pressure reading, air temperature and the volumetric efficiency of the engine. The standard MAF will be maxed out at anything past 145 BHP so it doesn’t serve much of a purpose on a build like this.
The oil breather can be directed back in to the inlet. I’m not a fan of catch tanks as they spew out oil fumes and usually fill up with oil and require maintenance. Using the ford TDCI oil breather clip you can easily make your own breather pipe work.

Heat wrap the actuator for the turbo. Although it is made of a thermo plastic, it could still be damaged by heat from the exhaust manifold. So far, I’ve found that even after very heavy driving the actuator does not experience any problems due to heat, so a bit of heat wrap does work very well.
 

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continued 6...

Cooling
Due to the exhaust down pipe the radiator needs to be re-routed around the engine bay, this is easy to do with some silicone hose.
A slim line fan needs to be fitted on the outside of the air con rad behind the bumper support beam. Once this is wired in, test using the PP2000 actuator commands to ensure that the fan is sucking air in to the radiator rather than blowing it in the wrong direction.
I found that I could program the fan to come in at a lower temperature in the software and this can then keep temperatures low before they get past 90 degrees. I have plans to add in another slim line fan on the other side of the radiator to double cooling power. It’s better to have too much cooling than to risk overheating in traffic on a hot day.
Wiring to the turbo actuator
This may seem complicated at first but is relatively simple to do. First you need to find the live feed and the PWM ground from your turbo electro valve. On the PSA vehicles, it’s bolted to the back of the engine, on the Fords it’s usually at the front right of the engine bay near the ECU.
The turbo electro valve used a permanent 12V feed and then the ground is pulse width modulated by the ECU.
To find the live, connect a multimeter to ground on your battery, and then test both pins to find which is +12v. This makes the remaining pin PWM.
On the TF035 turbo there are a few more pins than we require. Two of them are for a position sensor feedback system which we don’t have the option for in this ECU.
The Hella actuator requires +12V, GND, and PWM. Run a wire from the battery GND terminal to the actuator, and then the other two wires from the original turbo electro valve wiring.
Like the injectors and the MAP sensor, this is another part which won’t work until the ECU has been remapped. The PWM frequencies and voltages are different and these need to be set in the ECU.
DIAGRAM COMING SOON

Remapping and results
Now with all the hard work done, the tuning fun could begin. From the first test drive, I was impressed by the spool of the turbo and at that point I had not even began to optimise it.
Numerous tests were made to calibrate the VNT settings to get the turbo to boost as early as possible whilst minimising any boost spikes and keeping boost levels strong and stable.
The screen shot below shows just how stable the boost pressure was after lots of fine tuning. This was tested on a 3rd gear pull at full throttle. Most tuners don’t understand how to do this and you’ll get a big boost spike followed by a big drop in power. Here I avoid a boost spike which could blow the turbo and I avoid a dip in power afterwards by an over powerful PID loop. This is what separates the real tuners from the beginners who have little understanding of the complex control loops and how they integrate.
The logs below show air mass, injected fuel quantity, engine speed, boost pressure set point, boost pressure measured and intake temperature.
The slight spike in engine speed was due to a small third gear wheel spin (on a dry road surface).

After around a week of work on this, the turbo was performing very well. Now the next hard part began. Fine tuning the fuelling, injection timing and fuel pressure.
As this was running MAF-less I would use readings from the MAP sensor to calculate air mass available. The MAP pressure reading can be multiplied by the cylinder volume, the density of air, the volumetric efficiency of the engine and then divided by atmospheric pressure. With these values, the ECU could then calculate how much fuel would be allowed through the ‘Lambda’ maps to prevent smoke.
Results
This turbo offered great low-down torque, and the initial dyno results showed 278.5 lb.ft 378 Nm of torque and 198.3 BHP.


Manifold adaptor
If you’re interested in replicating this build, I am planning to get some more manifold adaptors made up, I’ll get them professionally TiG welded and the flanges machined perfectly flat. A rough estimate of price will be around the £130 mark which isn’t that bad for the amount of work that will go in to this.
Down pipe
I’ve asked one of my fabricators to quote me for the down pipe, this will save you the job of making one, although all the parts required are in the list at the start.

Further testing and better photos of completed build
This is still very much in the proto-type phase, I’m going to start using the car as my daily driver to get lots of miles on to it, I’ll also try to come up with better heat proofing and a way to mount the intake pipes more securely so they don’t come off over time. I’ll add some more pictures on once it’s properly finished.
 

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I cant believe no one has replied here, but this forum is somewhat stuffy these days..
Have been following this on f.b, unfortunately im saving for a house so cant take this upgrade but that is some nice work youve done there..:thumb:

Thankyou for the guide, i for one appreciate the effort in writing this up!
 

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I was actually seeing this yesterday and quite impressed you manage to just alter the OEM ECU stuff and make it all work!

Impressive job.

When first at it, you don't accidently know what frequency the Turbo electrovalve operates at on the 1.6 HDi engines? I was thinking to use one for controlling the boost on a regular Petrol turbo engine I'm working on these days, but I neither know the operation frequency, or really know if the valve will function in boost mode opposed to vacum as pr. standard.

At least on an unpowered electrovalve I struggle with air leaking through all 3 inputs/outputs.
 

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Discussion Starter #14
You only need the MAP sensor and the green temp sensor. You can remove the valves.
I made a 51mm pipe and welded a nut to it then drilled through to put the sensors in. Then another nut to hold the sensor on.
 

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I've now put 1500 miles on the car and I have to say it's driving very nicely.
The turbo has good response considering it's size and goes much better than any of the hybrid turbos I set up on the 1.6.

I've since upgraded the clutch to a Black Diamond ceramic paddle clutch. This drives very well and holds the torque well once warmed up. Being a ceramic material it seems to need to be hot to hold the full torque, but a few fast pull aways and once the engine is warm it will hold what ever you throw at it. Here's a clutch with a sprung friction plate to go with the solid flywheel. Make sure you use a solid flywheel if you do this and not the DMF.





I spent some more time tidying up the heat wrap and fitting another slim line fan on the opposite side of the radiator. Now there are two fans and no source of heat so there's no risk of over heating even when you're in traffic. I've programmed the fans to start at 85C and to be at 100% at 95C.



The turbo actautor is made of a thermo plastic and is well insulated and this has not encountered any problems even though it is close to the exhaust manifold. I've done extensive testing to try to get this hot and there seems to be no risk of it getting damaged.

Here's what the engine bay looks like for the finished job.



So far I've put 1500 miles on this setup and the only problem I had was the top boost hose coming off, this had been modified to fit better with a better jubilee clamp and is now holding perfectly.

I just did a 450 mile journey from the UK to holland and the car drove flawlessly even at 80 mph (130Kph) constantly and didn't get hot. Most surprisingly this is still really good on fuel. On 45 liters I've now covered 500 miles with almost a quarter of a tank remaining.
 

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Very impressive!
So for normal driving around town, much difference over a standard 90ps car? :)
(I am thinking you would want to keep her similar to a standard car for this sort of driving, normally quite difficult to achieve with bigger turbo replacements :( ).
 

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Discussion Starter #17
Well there's always going to be less power below 2000 RPM if you attach a giant turbo to a small engine, but it's really not that bad. I used it for quite a lot of miles so far and I enjoy driving it.
 

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I'm just getting into the world of diesel Turbo engines and I have to say I'm very impressed so far, I picked up a 307 sw with the 2.0hdi 136 engine and when I drove it home I was very impressed with the power but your thread has given me food for though about future plans for the Dad wagon 🤣🤣

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My new 1.6 hdi was dog slow when I brought it. Changed an injector seal and found an extra washer on. Since then a map egr delete for a 1.6 it's rapid and will sit at 90 easy enough. Not used to revving diesels to much but seems to come alive for some reason at about 2800 revs


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Discussion Starter #20
If the boost is coming in late at 2800 then you probably have a problem, either the turbo electro valve, or the turbo vnt is set up wrong. It's worth looking in to as you can get much better low down response.
 
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